Afghanistan in the World

description: 
<p>The clans of Afghanistan began uniting and forming their own, independent nation. With this solidarity, they entered a long period of balancing their own interests with those of modern global empires.</p> <p><br /> <br /> <a href="http://afghanistan.asiasociety.org/timeline/59/CE/1838">Investigate Afghanistan's place in the emerging modern world.</a></p>
Video Info
Video URL: 
http://media.asiasociety.org/education/afghanistan/era3/era3-teaser.mp4
Video Still: 
http://cms.afghanistan.asiasociety.org/sites/cms.afghanistan.asiasociety.org/files/still-era3-2.png
More Information: 
<p>Burke, John. &quot;Group. The Amir Yakub Khan, General Daod Shah, Habeebula Moustafi, with Major Cavagnari C.S.I. &amp; Mr Jenkyns [Gandamak].&quot; Digital image. British Library. Accessed August 29, 2010. http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/apac/photocoll/g/019pho000000487u00100000.html.</p> <p>Dupree, Nancy. <i>Daoud Leaving after Being Elected President</i>. 1977. Dupree Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p><i>Inauguration of the Band-I-Ghazi Dam</i>. 1925. Khalilullah Enayat Seraj Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p><i>K-00301-08</i>. AMRC Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p><i>KES-1789-A-1158</i>. Khalilullah Enayat Seraj Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p><i>KES-906-A-275</i>. Khalilullah Enayat Seraj Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p><i>KES-934-A-303_1</i>. Khalilullah Enayat Seraj Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p><i>KES-938A-A-307</i>. AMRC Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA. <br /> This is the video still image.</p> <p><i>KES-939-A-308</i>. Khalilullah Enayat Seraj Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p><i>KES-956-A-325</i>. Khalilullah Enayat Seraj Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p>Omar, Mohammad, performer. &quot;Rubab Solo.&quot; In <i>Music of Afghanistan</i>. Smithsonian Folkways, 1961, CD.</p> <p>&quot;Phonograph Record Store.&quot; Digital image. Foreign Policy. Accessed August 29, 2010. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/05/27/once_upon_a_time_in_afghanistan?page=0,19.</p> <p>Rattray, Lieutenant James. <i>Interior of the Palace of Shauh Shujah Ool Moolk, Late King of Cabul</i>. 1848. Courtesy of the British Library Board, London.</p> <p>Rattray, Lieutenant James. <i>Kelaut-I-Ghiljie</i>. 1848. Courtesy of the British Library Board, London.</p> <p><i>&quot;Save Me From My Friends!&quot;</i> 19th C. In <i>Afghanistan Old Photos</i>. http://www.afghanistan-photos.com/crbst_26.html.</p> <p>Simpson, Sir Benjamin. <i>Ruins of Old Kandahar Citadel</i>. 1881. Courtesy of the British Library Board, London.</p> <hr /> <p>Producer: Kate Harding</p>
Video Transcript: 
<p>Throughout history, the land that is now Afghanistan was continually used as a buffer for larger, outside empires. But in the 18th century, this started to change. The clans of Afghanistan began uniting and forming their own, independent nation.</p> <p>With this solidarity, they entered a long period of balancing their own interests with those of modern global empires.</p> <p>Britain and Russia both tried to control Afghanistan as a buffer state with puppet leaders &ndash; in order to protect their interests in India, Persia, and Central Asia.</p> <p>But neither the Russians nor the British could succeed in controlling Afghanistan.</p> <p>By the 1920s, the Afghans were celebrating their independence.</p> <p>The world was changing quickly by then and Afghan rulers understood they needed to bring reforms to their country in order to succeed in the new world order.</p> <p>Over the coming decades, Afghanistan entered an era of peace as its people set to work transforming the society.</p> <p>But by the second half of the 20th century, tension would mount as Afghans debated which aspects of their society should change and which should remain the same.</p> <p>By the 1970s, that question would dissolve the royal family, as well as the decades of peace that had finally blessed Afghanistan. Thirty years of modern war would follow.</p>

Afghanistan Today

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<p>Even in modern times, Afghanistan has continued to find itself at the mercy of the world&rsquo;s great powers. But there is more to Afghanistan&rsquo;s modern history than violence.</p> <br /> <br /> <a href="http://afghanistan.asiasociety.org/timeline/8/CE/1980">Get to know Afghanistan today.</a><br /> <br />
Video Info
Video URL: 
http://media.asiasociety.org/education/afghanistan/era4/era4-teaser.mp4
Video Still: 
http://cms.afghanistan.asiasociety.org/sites/cms.afghanistan.asiasociety.org/files/still-era4.png
More Information: 
<p><em>0126</em>. AMRC Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p>Bluuurgh. &quot;Taliban in Herat.&quot; Digital image. Wikipedia Commons. Accessed September 4, 2010. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Taliban-herat-2001_retouched.jpg.</p> <p><em>G-00199-12</em>. AMRC Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p>ISAF, and U.S. Marine Corps Corporal John Scott Rafoss. &quot;090103-M-6058R-033.&quot; Digital image. Isafmedia's Flickr Photostream. Accessed September 4, 2010. http://www.flickr.com/photos/isafmedia/3166572484/.</p> <p>Jalali, Jawad, and UNAMA. &quot;Photo of the Day: 15 March 2009.&quot; Digital image. UNAMA's Flickr Photostream. Accessed September 4, 2010. http://www.flickr.com/photos/unama/3366538261/.</p> <p>Jalali, Jawad. &quot;Photo of the Day: 8 March 2010.&quot; Digital image. UNAMA's Flickr Photostream. Accessed September 4, 2010. http://www.flickr.com/photos/unama/4416718052/.</p> <p><em>Q-00498-32</em>. AMRC Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p><em>Q2-01283-33</em>. AMRC Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p>Rieger, Michael. &quot;Photograph by Michael Rieger Taken on 09/25/2001 in New York.&quot; Digital image. FEMA Photo Library. Accessed September 4, 2010. http://www.photolibrary.fema.gov/photolibrary/photo_details.do?id=4184.</p> <p>UNESCO, Manoocher, and Webistan. Kabul Museum - Statue Restoration. UNESCO, Kabul, Afghanistan. Accessed September 4, 2010. http://photobank.unesco.org/exec/fiche.htm.</p> <p>UNESCO, Roya Aziz, and Star Group. Burka. UNESCO, Kabul, Afghanistan. Accessed September 4, 2010. http://photobank.unesco.org/exec/fiche.htm.</p> <p>U.S. Army, and Spc. Christopher Nicholas. &quot;Onlookers to War.&quot; Digital image. The U.S. Army's Flickr Photostream. Accessed September 4, 2010. http://www.flickr.com/photos/soldiersmediacenter/4112090147/.</p> <p>U.S. State Department. &quot;Loya Jirga 2002.&quot; Digital image. Wikipedia Commons. Accessed September 4, 2010. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Loya_Jirga_2002.jpg.</p> <p><em>V2-01425-04</em>. AMRC Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p><em>V2-01425-35</em>. AMRC Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p>Waezi, Fardin, and UNAMA. &quot;Daily Bazaar.&quot; Digital image. UNAMA's Flickr Photostream. Accessed January/February, 2010. www.flickr.com/photos/unama/4229588145/in/photostream/.</p> <p>Waezi, Fardin, and UNAMA. &quot;Ferris Wheel.&quot; Digital image. UNAMA's Flickr Photostream. Accessed January/February, 2010. www.flickr.com/photos/unama/4151958857/in/photostream/.</p> <hr /> <p>Producer: Kate Harding</p>
Video Transcript: 
<p>Even in modern times, Afghanistan has continued to find itself at the mercy of the world&rsquo;s great powers.</p> <p>In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded the country to expand its influence in the region. The US viewed this move as an extension of the Cold War and began funneling aid to the Afghan resistance. The Soviets continued to fight but could not control the countryside. By 1992, Russians abandoned the war effort and returned home. American support in the region disappeared soon thereafter.</p> <p>In the void left behind, Afghanistan descended into chaos.</p> <p>The Taliban emerged as a stabilizing force, though at great cost. By 1996, they seized the capital and began enforcing a strict code of conduct.</p> <p>After the September 11th attacks of 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan in an effort to root out extremism and quell the Taliban. But it is unclear whether the American presence is simplifying Afghanistan&rsquo;s situation or making it more complicated.</p> <p>Perspectives differ, and every Afghan&rsquo;s experience is unique. But there is more to Afghanistan&rsquo;s modern history than violence. The country has also experienced great moments of consensus and rebuilding.</p> <p>Life goes on, and despite the ravages of the past, Afghans continue to believe in the brightness of the future.</p>

Age of Empire

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<p>Central Asia witnessed repeated and often devastating cycles of conquest. But with destruction came creation. Afghan cities were situated on trade routes that connected Eurasian empires. The region flourished with art, knowledge, and cultural fusion. Over time, Afghanistan's tribal clans joined forces and an Afghan homeland started to emerge.</p> <p><br /> <br /> <a href="http://afghanistan.asiasociety.org/timeline/6/BCE/330">Meet the first great conqueror</a> of the age of empires.</p>
Video Info
Video URL: 
http://media.asiasociety.org/education/afghanistan/era2/era2-teaser.mp4
Video Still: 
http://cms.afghanistan.asiasociety.org/sites/cms.afghanistan.asiasociety.org/files/still-era2.png
More Information: 
<p>Al-Biruni. <em>Illustration by Al-Biruni (973-1048) of Different Phases of the Moon, from Kitab Al-tafhim (in Persian)</em>. 973-1048. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1976). Islamic Science: An Illustrated Study, World of Islam Festival Publishing Company.</p> <p>Al-Din, Rashid. J<em>ami Al Tavarikh (Compendium of Chronicles) by Rashid Al-Din. Mongols Attacking Baghdad</em>. 14th C. Staatsbibliothek Zu Berlin--Preussischer Kulturbesitz Orientabteilung/ Art Resource, NY Diez A Fol. 70, No.7.</p> <p><em>Alexander Mosaic</em>. 100 BCE. Naples National Archaeological Museum.</p> <p>Arnesen, Marius. &quot;Musalla Complex and Minarets - Herat, Afghanistan.&quot; Digital image. Marius Arnesen's Flickr Photostream. Accessed August 20, 2010. http://www.flickr.com/photos/anarkistix/4112214896/in/set-72157622697812403.<br /> Creative Commons license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en</p> <p>Dupree, Nancy. <em>61-114-C</em>. Dupree Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p>Firdawsi. <em>Folio from a Shahnama (Book of Kings) by Firdawsi; Battle between Zanga and Awkhast</em>. 1493-1494. Freer Gallery of Art / Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Washington, DC.</p> <p>Firdawsi. <em>Folio from a Shahnama (Book of Kings) by Firdawsi (d.1020); Rustam Encamped</em>. 1425-1450. Freer Gallery of Art / Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Washington, DC.</p> <p>Lensfodder. &quot;Timur on Horseback.&quot; Digital image. Lensfodder's Flickr Photostream. Accessed August 20, 2010. http://www.flickr.com/photos/runnerone/2637824277/. Creative Commons: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/deed.en</p> <p>PHG. &quot;SeatedBuddha.&quot; Digital image. Wikipedia Commons. Accessed August 20, 2010. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SeatedBuddha.jpg. GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU_Free_Documentation_License</p> <p>PHGCOM. &quot;SeleucosCoin.&quot; Digital image. Wikipedia Commons. Accessed August 19, 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:SeleucosCoin.jpg.</p> <p>Rattray, Lieutenant James. <em>City of Kandahar, Its Principal Bazaar and Citadel, Taken from the Nakkara Khauna</em>. 1848. British Library. Accessed August 20, 2010. http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/apac/other/019xzz000000562u00028000.html. Lithograph, courtesy of the British Library</p> <p>Rattray, Lieutenant James. &quot;Interior of the City of Kandahar, from the House of Sirdar Meer Dil Khaun.&quot; Digital image. British Library. Accessed August 20, 2010. http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/onlineex/apac/other/019xzz000000562u00023000.html.</p> <p><em>Shah Jahan on the Peacock Throne Which Was Carried off by Nadir Shah in 1738-9</em>. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.</p> <p>Shams, A. &quot;Ahmad-Shah-Durani.&quot; Digital image. Wikipedia Commons. Accessed August 20, 2010. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ahmad-Shah-Durani.jpeg.</p> <p>Unknown. <em>Babur Entering Kabul, from Illuminated Manuscript Baburnama (Memoirs of Babur)</em>. 16th C. The Baburnama, Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD. Creative Commons license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/deed.en</p> <p>Unknown. F<em>olio from a Haft Awrang (Seven Thrones) by Jami (d. 1492); Verso: Bandits Attack the Caravan of Aynie and Ria; Recto: Text</em>. 1556-1565. Freer Gallery of Art / Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Washington, DC.</p> <p>Unknown.<em> Paying Homage</em><em>, from Illuminated Manuscript Baburnama (Memoirs of Babur). </em>16th C. The Baburnama, Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, MD. Creative Commons license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/deed.en</p> <hr /> <p>Producer: Kate Harding</p>
Video Transcript: 
<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.</p>

Age of Settlement

description: 
<p>The Hindu Kush region&mdash;what is today Afghanistan&mdash;had a terrain that seemed to determine the destiny of many who lived there. But with time, humans began changing that destiny. With agriculture came settlements and eventually a vast trade network, which led to the mightiest empire of the ancient world. The world was growing more complex&mdash;and there was no turning back. </p> <p><br /> <a href="http://afghanistan.asiasociety.org/timeline/16/BCE/100000">Explore the ancient world</a>.<br /> </p>
Video Info
Video URL: 
http://media.asiasociety.org/education/afghanistan/teaser-era1.mp4
Video Still: 
http://cms.afghanistan.asiasociety.org/sites/cms.afghanistan.asiasociety.org/files/still-era1.png
More Information: 
<p>Bolwidt, Erwin. <em>King vs. Lion</em>. October 9, 2009. Persepolis, Iran. Accessed October 25, 2010. http://www.flickr.com/photos/erwinb/4084052020/. <br /> Creative Commons license: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic</p> <p><em>Costume Fitting</em>. 4th c. BCE. The British Museum, London, UK. Accessed October 25, 2010. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/search_object_details.aspx?objectId=434391&amp;partId=1.<br /> Gold sew-on clothing applique; in the form of two Scythian archers back to back, probably blood-brothers. Found in Kuloba.</p> <p>Dupree, Nancy. <em>61-114-C</em>. Dupree Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p>Dupree, Nancy. <em>76-1430</em>. Dupree Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p>Elishk. <em>Persepolis</em>. August 24, 2006. Persepolis, Iran. Accessed April 22, 2010. http://www.flickr.com/photos/elishka/236874317/.<br /> Creative Commons license: Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic</p> <p><em>Lapis Figure or Amulet</em>. The British Museum, London, UK. Accessed April 27, 2010. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/search_object_details.aspx?objectId=130033&amp;partId=1. <br /> This object was found in Egypt, but the lapis stone likely came from Afghanistan.</p> <p><em>Lapis Fragments</em>. The British Museum, London, UK. Accessed October 25, 2010. http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/search_the_collection_database/search_object_details.aspx?objectId=1422274&amp;partId=1.</p> <p>Malang. &quot;Zerbaphali Solo.&quot; In <em>Music of Afghanistan</em>. Radio Kabul , 1961. <br /> Distributed and managed by Smithsonian Folkways.</p> <p>Mallard, Jonathan. <em>Logar Sunset 2</em>. January 21, 2009. Logar Province, Afghanistan. Accessed October 25, 2010. http://www.flickr.com/photos/mallard10/3352402714/.<br /> Creative Commons license: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic</p> <p>Powell, Josephine. <em>Photograph: Great Mother Goddess</em>. Special Collections Library, Fine Arts Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.</p> <p><em>Q-00500-26</em>. AMRC Collection, Williams Afghan Media Project, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.</p> <p><em>Seated Male Figure from Mundigak</em>. 3rd millennia, BCE. Kabul Museum, Kabul, Afghanistan. In <em>Ancient Art from Afghanistan</em>. New York: Asia House, NY. <br /> Probably a toy rather than a cult image. This object resembles others of the type unearthed at Chanhu Daro in the Indus Valley.</p> <p><em>Step Cups 1 and 2</em>. 3rd millennia, BCE. Kabul Museum, Kabul, Afghanistan. In <em>Ancient Art from Afghanistan</em>. New York: Asia House, NY. <br /> The &quot;brandy balloon&quot; goblets or stem cups from Mundigak have counterparts in vessels found at sites of roughly the same period in the Indus Valley. The antelope design on the present example resembles similar long-horned beasts on the pottery of Susa II.</p>
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